Energy use and emissions by rail transport; description and results of the model PRORIN
Specific energy use by trains is generally based on aggregated data on energy use and transport volume (top-down method). However, in order to determine specific energy use for new rail concepts or to assess the effects of changes in for example train speed, a bottom-up method is essential.
A bottom-up method uses physical, operational and logistical train characteristics. This report decribes the development and application of a bottom-up model (PRORIN) for assessing energy use and emissions by both passenger and freight rail transport. The model calculates traction energy using formulas for the correlation between physical, operational and logistical characteristics on the one hand and energy use on the other. Subsequently well-to-wheel energy use is calculated using efficiencies of distribution and conversion of energy.
The characteristics are obtained from literature and from measurements performed for this project. In the case of elektric trains, emissions are calculated using the results of a separate research project which focussed on emissions from electricity plants. PRORIN has been used to assess energy use by and emissions from passenger rail transport in 1998. The bottom-up result for total energy use appears to correspond fairly well with the value reported by the Dutch railway company. However, in the case of freight rail transport there is a large gap between the result obtained with the bottom-up and the top-down value reported by the Dutch railway company. We assume the reasons for this gap have to be addressed to train shunting, which has not been modeled yet, and to the underestimation of the number of empty railroad carriages.
|Author(s)||Gijsen A ; Brink RMM van den|