Cost-effective abatement options for improving air quality in the Netherlands
Research has indicated that more stringent European emission standards for heavy duty vehicles (EuroVI) are cost-effective compared to other measures to bring down the concentration of PM10 and NO2 at traffic-related hotspots. However, this measure is relatively costly for improving the exposure of the general population to PM10. Other measures include road pricing, technical measures in the storage and handling of bulk goods and placement of air scrubbers in the larger pig and poultry housing systems.
The Netherlands Enviromental Assessment Agency (MNP) has evaluated the cost-effectiveness of policy options to improve the air quality in the Netherlands. This paper considers further abatement options in different sectors and looks at the emissions of primary and secondary precursors for fine particulate matter (PM10).
The evaluation shows that there are two ways to consider the cost-effectiveness of further policy actions. The first is to focus on the progress towards the legally binding EU air quality limit values for fine particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), i.e. to minimize the concentration along traffic-related hot-spots at least costs. The second is to focus on health benefits, i.e. to minimize the population exposure to PM10 at least costs. Cost-effectiveness of abatement options has been quantified for both policy objectives.
Results show that optimizing air quality limit values in the Netherlands will, in general, also deliver cost-optimal solutions for the reduction of exposure to PM10. The introduction of road use pricing schemes is the most cost-effective, followed by technical measures directed at the reduction of primary PM10 emissions from storage and handling, shipping, industry and agriculture. The implementation of ‘de-NOx’ equipment on inland ships is also cost-effective. Other assessed abatement options are less cost-effective. These are measures to reduce the emissions of secondary precursors i.e. measures to reduce NH3 emissions from agriculture, SO2/NOx emissions from industry and NOx emissions from small combustion sources.
Cleaner heavy duty vehicles (particle filters and advanced ‘de-NOx’ technology) form a special case. Results indicate that more stringent European emission standards for heavy duty vehicles (EuroVI) are cost-effective (compared to other measures) to bring down the concentration of PM10 and NO2 at traffic-related hotspots, but are relatively costly (compared to other measures) for improving the exposure of the general population to PM10. Note that estimates for the effect of particle filters on population exposure are preliminary. Exposure modelling at high resolution is needed to confirm calculated effects of particle filters for exposure.
|Author(s)||Smeets W; Blom W; Hoen A; Jimmink B; Koelemeijer R; Peters J; Vries W de|
|Publication||Proceedings of the symposium DustConf 2007, 23-24 April 2007, Maastricht, The Netherlands|